Reformationsfest 2007

By Matthew Becker

Earlier this October I led a group of twenty Valparaiso University students on a week-long study trip to sites in central and eastern Germany connected with Martin Luther (1483-1546). The students have been participating in Valpo’s semester-long study abroad program in Reutlingen, Germany, where I serve as its director. This fall I’m teaching two courses: one on the theology of Luther and Bach and the other on contemporary German life and culture. The trip east, through Thüringen, Saxony (Sachsen), and Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt), was essential to both courses. (The students are also taking classes on the German language, art and architecture, economics, and business–all taught by Reutlingen and Tübingen professors.)

Prior to our trip, the students and I had worked our way through several key texts, read the slim biography by Martin Marty, viewed segments from the excellent PBS documentary, Empires: Martin Luther, and discussed aspects of the Reformer’s work and world. (Once the students return from their two-week fall break in mid-Nov., we’ll focus more intently on Bach, whose geography covers some of the same turf as that of his spiritual forebear. Our journey also included visits to the Bach museums inEisenach and Leipzig.) After examining Luther’s childhood and early education in Mansfeld, we immersed ourselves in Erfurt 1501-05, where and when he had studied philosophy and the liberal arts and, briefly, law, and analyzed his religious crisis (i.e., the cut artery in his leg, the deaths of several friends from the plague, his guilt and fear before God, and finally the storm near Stotternheim). We then explored his decision to become an Augustinian monk, his life as a friar and priest, and his reluctant agreement to become a doctor of Holy Scripture. We sought to understand the terrible Anfechtungen (“spiritual crises,” depressions, panic attacks?) that overwhelmed him, and how his mentor, Staupitz, and the theology of humility that he had learned from the Psalms, had helped to calm his troubled soul.

A major goal of ours was to understand how this preacher-theologian became such a fierce critic of the Roman Catholic Church and its sacramental system. We thus studied Luther’s early biblical commentaries, his anti-scholastic writings, and his 95 theses against certain abuses in the sale of indulgences, which reveal his struggle with the true nature of repentance and thus with the proper relationship of sinners before God. The so-called Indulgence Controversy, which intensified as Luther’s widely published scholarly theses were attacked by established church authorities and ultimately by the pope, in turn contributed to his so-called “Reformation breakthrough,” sometime between December 1517 and the following summer. This Durchbruch gradually occurred as he came to understand the righteousness of God as that by which the righteous lives as a gift of God, i.e., as righteousness received by faith alone. The gospel reveals this passive righteousness of God through which the merciful God justifies us by faith, for Christ’s sake. God does not punish, but he gives, and he makes us right with himself by our trusting in the good news about Jesus.

After engaging materials related to this breakthrough, the students and I traveled several paths: to the theology of the cross, the freedom of the Christian, Luther’s sacramental theology and reforms, his critiques of monasticism and forced celibacy, the bondage of the will, his political theology and reaction to the peasants’ uprisings, and finally to his apocalyptic outlook, his marriage and family life, and his troubling views toward the Jews.

Finally, we set out on our physical journey: to Erfurt (two days), Eisenach (one day), Leipzig (two days), and Wittenberg (one day). Day One included a very informative walking tour of Erfurt, which focused especially on the churches, the university, and the Augustinian monastery, whose library is undergoing renovation. (It suffered damage from Allied bombs during the Second World War.) Our guide was dressed as Luther would have looked in 1505. Hans-Peter Ahr, a retired high school teacher, even looked a bit like the Mansfelder: short (Luther was only five feet five), round face, sparkling eyes, sharp sense of humor. A special highlight of the week was another walking tour, this time with Katja Koehler, a recent university graduate, whose fluent English carefully conveyed her extensive knowledge of Wittenberg and its history. (She is from the region, but had studied for a time at Emory University in Atlanta.) Our “Day in Wittenberg,” including Katja’s walking tour, was arranged by Dr. Jean Godsall-Myers and Pr. Steve Godsall-Myers, who serve as co-directors of the ELCA’s Wittenberg Center there and were our gracious hosts that Friday. (I will return to them below.) Katja took us from the small train station, past the spot where Luther burned the papal bull of excommunication, into the Augustinian Monastery/Lutherhaus, and then on to the Castle Church at the other end of town. Along the way we stopped for comments and questions at the Melanchthonhaus, the Cranachhaus, and the Town Church. After the tour we participated in the English-language meditation at the Corpus Christi Chapel, next to the Town Church. (Wittenberg English Ministry is a pan-Lutheran ministry organized by one pastor with the help of three lay people from the LCMS and staffed by volunteer pastors from the ELCA, LCMS, and WELS for two-week stints throughout the summer. For more information, contact Pr. Keith Losch at

At the Castle Church, wherein Luther and his friend and colleague, Philipp Melanchthon, are buried (along with Elector Frederick the Wise and his brother, Elector John the Steadfast), we posed for a group photo in front of the doors that are now bronzed and engraved with the 95 Theses. (The original doors were destroyed in October 1760, during the so-called Seven Years War, when the church was heavily damaged. The new doors were completed a century later.) Standing in front of the new portal, I couldn’t help but think about that fateful October-November nearly five hundred years ago, and to the impact that this one little monk has had on our world.

We still cannot be sure that he actually posted his theses to the door of the Castle Church on October 31, 1517. He never referred to such an action. We do know that he mailed the theses on that date to his archbishop, Albrecht of Mainz, and to his diocesan bishop, Jerome Schulze of Brandenburg. Later, perhaps in mid-November, he invited scholars, probably via mail, to a disputation about the theses. The initial report about their being “posted” came from Melanchthon, who was not present inWittenberg in 1517, and who made this comment only after his elder colleague’s death. Nevertheless, whether “nailed” or mailed, the theses, originally written in Latin for a scholarly audience, were relatively quickly translated into German–against Luther’s wishes–and printed and distributed far and wide–again, contrary to the author’s initial plan. The theses took on a life of their own, catapulted their author onto the center stage of world history, and marked a turning point whose effects are still experienced today. He remarked later that had he known his theses would have been printed and distributed as they were, he would have been more careful with his language and the organization of his ideas. Although the heading of the theses called for a public debate inWittenberg, no such disputation ever took place. No one took the trouble to show up.

Whereas several of the theses are rather difficult to understand, the first one is famous and sets forth the principal theme of the document as a whole: “When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, ‘Repent,’ he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.” True repentance does not consist in medieval confessional satisfactions; rather, it entails the mortification of the flesh. The penalty of sin remains as long as the sinner’s hatred of himself remains, that is, until death ends the sinner’s life. The pope has no power to remit divine punishments for any sin. He can merely declare the remission of guilt in God’s name. Most annoying to papal traditionalists, Luther asserted that the pope and the church have no jurisdiction over the dead in purgatory. (He himself would continue to believe in purgatory until the early 1520s.) Indulgence preachers are therefore wrong to boast, “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings” (that is, as soon as people pay their money to buy a papal indulgence or “kindness”) “the soul from purgatory springs.” Because true remission of sins is just as rare as true repentance, all those who believe they are certain of their salvation because of indulgence letters are damned, along with their teachers. Implicit in Luther’s critique is the opinion that sellers of papal indulgences are really swindlers. Turning the tables, he declared: Anyone who is truly contrite has perfect remission of guilt and penalty, even without indulgence letters. It is better to give to the poor and to do works of mercy than to purchase indulgences. A person becomes better through works of love (here Luther reveals that he had not yet undergone his evangelical breakthrough), while a person does not become better through indulgences. The final theses are also justly famous:

94. Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their head, through penalties, death, and hell;

95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace [Acts 14:22].

Despite the fact that the theological content of the theses is not yet fully evangelical, at least in light of his later Reformatory discovery or “gospel breakthrough” (and here the scholarly works of Martin Brecht and Bernhard Lohse have solidly established that the breakthrough postdates the theses), October 31st has become the traditional date on which to celebrate what has come to be called the Protestant Reformation. Luther himself apparently celebrated the ten-year anniversary of the theses. In a letter to his drinking buddy, Nicolas von Amsdorf, he mentions that he had raised his glass of wine (he preferred wine to beer) on Nov 1 (!), recalling that this was the anniversary of the day on which indulgences were trampled under foot. The official designation of October 31st as the Festival of the Reformation came 140 years later (1667), when Johann Georg II, then Elector of Saxony, issued a proclamation to that effect. Since the 150th anniversary of the theses the observance of Reformationsfest has spread far and wide among most Lutheran and many other Protestant churches. (Growing up in Salem, Oregon, my brother and I were always troubled that our “Halloween trick-or-treating” was cut short because we had to go to church that night at 7:00 to hear about Martin Luther. More recently, St. John Church, like most other American Lutheran congregations, observes the festival on the Sunday before October 31. Lutheran trick-or-treaters today no longer have the angst my brother and I did in the early 1970s, at least with respect to Halloween.)

How, if at all, do folks in Thüringen and Sachsen-Anhalt celebrate their local hero’s Reformation? Is Reformationsfest a big deal or hardly mentioned?

Although October 31 remains an official state holiday in the five “new states” (Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, and Thüringen, which together formed the former East Germany), most people there observe the date by merely taking the day off from work, that is, if they have work. The percentage of unemployed in these states is the highest in Germany: 14-15%. (Eastern Germany, whose population is around 16 million, including Berlin’s 3.4 million, is still emptying out after 17 years of reunification because of high unemployment and the lack of business investment. Since 1990 more than 150 billion euros have been pumped from western Germany into the region, but the economic woes continue.) Now that the uniquely American “Halloween” is becoming an October phenomenon in Germany as well, one is not surprised to hear that many will dress up on the 31st as their favorite monster and attend a party (e.g., “Harry Potter Nacht“). In this respect, the day has become a foretaste of Karneval, which officially begins on the 11th of November at 11am.

According to a 2005 survey, the percentage of Christians in Thüringen is 34% (ca. 780,000 out of 2.3 million). In Sachsen the figure is 25% (1 million out of 4 million). The percentage is even lower in Sachsen-Anhalt, only 19% (ca. 456,000 out of 2.4 million). In cities such as Leipzig (place of Luther’s 1519 debate with Eck and the home of J. S. Bach for 27 years), the figure may be as low as 5% (ca. 2500 in a city of half a million). According to its website (, the Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Sachsen has 835,000 members in 882 congregations. The Lutheran Landeskirche of Thüringen has slightly fewer: 563,000 members. Forty years of official state-sponsored atheism certainly have had their effect, although other factors (e.g., world wars, economic depressions, the Nazis, then the Communists, the Cold War, dehumanizing industrialization, bishops and pastors who collaborated with one dictatorship or another, corrupt clergy, secularization, etc.) surely have contributed to the decline of Christianity in this region.

Even when one looks to Germany as a whole, the health of the Christian churches throughout the country is questionable. Since 1990, Germany’s two main Christian churches, the Roman Catholic and the Protestant/Lutheran have lost more than 5.5 million members. Protestants/Lutherans number around 25 million, out of a total population of 82 million, and yet the percentage of the population in church on a given Sunday is low, ca. 12%. (In the U.S. that figure is around 44%.) The Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD), the main institutional structure for Protestant churches in Germany–23 Lutheran, Reformed and United regional churches–is facing increased financial troubles. The much smaller confessional Lutheran church in Germany, theSelbständige Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche (SELK), has only around 25,000-30,000 church members in 200 congregations.

Despite these gloomy statistics, there will be signs of Christian spiritual life in some Eastern German communities on Reformationsfest 2007. In the region’s “Second City,” Leipzig, there will be a festival Gottesdienst at 9.30 at the St. Thomas Church, in whose chancel Bach is buried. Special attention will be given to the recently restored “Luther window.” The excellent principal organist, Ullrich Böhme, will play, the St. Thomas Boys choir will sing, and the Thomaskantor, Georg Christoph Biller, will direct. Pr. Christian Wolff, cousin to Bach biographer and Harvard music professor, Christoph Wolff, will preach. Hundreds will attend. A short distance away, the St. Nicholas congregation will also celebrate the day with a festival divine service in the morning and special music. (“Nikolaikirche–open to all” became a reality in the fall of 1989. From the Monday prayer services for peace emerged the Peaceful Revolution in Leipzig and from there it spread to other places in the east. Candles and prayers were too much for the state security and DDR officials. BTW, the prayers for peace continue on Mondays at 5pm.) At the massive Berliner Dom (see, the largest church in Berlin and one of the main Protestant (Lutheran-Reformed) churches in Germany(the four main statues beneath the dome are of Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin and Zwingli), there will be both a morning festival divine service and an evening one. Domorganist, Prof. Dr. Andreas Sieling, will play for both services. Again, hundreds will attend.

Throughout eastern Germany other Gemeinden of Lutherans will gather in the morning or evening for celebratory services of the Word. Some of these will be ecumenical in nature (e.g., Lutheran-Methodist, Lutheran-Roman Catholic, and at least one gathering of Lutherans and Jews). In Dresden the main Reformationsfest will take place at the recently restored Frauenkirche, perhaps the most beautiful Lutheran church building in the world. Elsewhere in “the Florence of the Elbe” there will be additionalGottesdienste, concerts, a children’s musical, and “Luther games.” (I have no idea what these are but the city officials promise that kids will have a good time.) In nearby Wurzen there will be an evening “Reformation concert” by the Westsächsisches Symphony Orchestra. Throughout Saxony bakers will sell traditional “Reformationsbrötchen” or “Lutherbrot” (shaped like the famous “Luther Rose”). For many easterners, these will be their only contact with the Reformer and the significance of the holiday.

A quick scan of websites and other promotional materials suggests many eastern German Lutherans will connect Luther’s freedom of the gospel to the political freedom that they have experienced since and because of the Peaceful Revolution. TheLandesbishop of the Lutheran Church in Thüringen (and deputy council member of the EKD), Christoph Kähler, recently reminded East Germans of how “Martin Luther became for us to a certain extent a guide to freedom. He himself also came out of a situation of captivity. He wanted for himself to find access to God.  He wanted to impress God with his achievements. And yet he learned again and again that thereby he had not become happier or more certain. First, as he learned and conceived: the grace and love of God cannot be earned; he was then no longer tormented.” (Some East German artists during the regime of the former DDR depicted Luther as a revolutionary for freedom. See, for example, the portrait of Luther as “Junker Jörg,” as Jörg might have looked as a university student in 1968, by the Leipziger artist, Matthias Klemm, which was completed for the 500th anniversary of Luther’s birth in 1983. That same year Bernhard Michel created a complex graphic which depicts a celebratory-foolish Luther attempting to dig people out from under a slab of concrete. Surrounding him are people who are indifferent to his work. They want to hear nothing, see nothing, say nothing, and only to go back into their own world. But still Luther digs…)

As one would expect, the largest Reformationsfest will occur in Wittenberg. Unlike Luther’s Hochzeit, the other city festival, one that takes place on the weekend closest to the anniversary of Martin’s marriage to Katharina von Bora (June 13) and that has little to do with spiritual matters, the activities of the Reformationsfest are faith-oriented. The several-day event will bring thousands of visitors to the Lutherstadt. The town leaders will provide several options that combine a visit to the town with opportunities for spiritual and intellectual enrichment. The historic town hall will have an exhibit on “Christian motifs in the art of the DDR” alongside its permanent exhibit on Christian art of the 20th Century. The Lutherhaus museum will showcase several rooms of artifacts and memorabilia related to the Reformer’s life, work, and influence, and the Cranachhaus will provide an exhibit on the life and work of the artist, Lucas Cranach Sr., a close friend of the Luther’s. Other activities of the Reformationsfest include walking tours of the city, lectures (e.g., “Luther and his Friends,” “The Reformation as Epochal Turning Point?,” and “Cranach Paintings from the Central German Collection”), seminars, organ and orchestral concerts (works by Bach and Mendelssohn Bartholdy), and a Kabarett in the Lutherhotel. At the Marktplatz there will be medieval music and handcrafts, food and drink. On the night of the 31st there will be the opportunity to partake of a 5-course meal, entitled “Dining with Luther.” The second Wittenberger Renaissancemusikfest will also take place that week and will include workshops (e.g., “Wittenberger Sounds from Luther to Paul Gerhardt”) and concerts.

Of course the main spiritual events of the celebration will be the divine services in both the Castle Church and the Town Church. (Although both churches belong to the Union Church, i.e., the Protestant Church that Friedrich Wilhelm III formed on October 31, 1817, the tercentenary of the Reformation, when he forced the merger of Lutheran and Reformed churches, both congregations consider themselves “Lutheran” by tradition and theology.) At the early service in the Castle Church, ELCA pastor Steve Godsall-Meyers will preach (in English) on the appointed Gospel text. Later, at the main 10.00am service, more than 800 people will process through the bronze “95 Theses” doors, which are only opened for entrance on this day. Pastor Friedrich Schorlemmer will preach on Isaiah 62:6-7, 10-12. (Schorlemmer is a Wittenberger who was a big name during the Peaceful Revolution in 1989. In 1983 he created a protest that was noted around the world when he had a sword beat into a plowshare.) The BBC will be taping this service for use in an upcoming documentary. At the same time the Town Church will also have a divine service, which will be broadcast nationally by the ARD-television network. More than 1000 people will be in attendance. The preacher for this service will be Dr. Dr. h.c. Wilhelm Hüffmeier, President of the Gustav-Adolf-Werk, the oldest Lutheran Hilfswerk in Germany, founded in Leipzig in 1832. (In keeping with the spirit of Luther’s theses–i.e., giving money to the poor–many of the offerings collected in the eastern German churches on the 31st will be given to this social-ministry organization which is celebrating its 175th anniversary this year.)

A third divine service will also begin at 10.00 that day in Wittenberg. This will be for the 550 confirmands from all over Germany and their 100 chaperones who will come to Wittenberg for spiritual renewal and educational opportunities. Organized by the Evangelische Akademie of Saxony-Anhalt, the 8th two-day Konfirmandentreffen (“confirmand meeting”) will include a city rally, live music, a dance, theater, films, and a procession through the town. The Akademie, an educational institution supported by the government and the church, seeks to engage church and society regarding the important issues of our time through conferences and workshops. The Konfirmandentreffen will begin the day before Reformation Day and will provide 16 afternoon workshops on a wide range of spiritual and ecclesial topics. Interactive and arts-oriented, these workshops will attempt to encourage the confirmands to grow in their faith and spiritual commitments and activities. In addition, throughout the city from 7pm until 9pm there will be more than 20 “rally stations” that present information on such issues as church music, Bible translation, church architecture, ecclesial art. The students stay overnight in a local gym and eat some of their meals as a group. (The organizers of this youth gathering would like a larger international presence. Why not take your confirmation class to Wittenberg for Reformation Day?! For more information, see

In September 1508 Augustinian monk and Assistant Professor Martin Luther first came to Wittenberg. Thus contemporary Wittenbergers are already promoting “Luther 2017,” a decade-long celebration that will start next year and culminate in the 500th anniversary of the theses. A major venue for this celebration will be the newly renovated “Lutherhaus,” the former Augustinian monastery that became Luther’s home and is now a very interesting museum. What used to be a rather simple exhibit (I last visited in 1996), with displays mostly in German, now is state-of-the-art and includes interpretive materials in both German and English. The VU students and I spent more than two hours there, and we still did not see everything. Presenting artifacts and detailed information about Luther, Katharina, their family, and extended household, the museum also gives the visitor an interesting glimpse into late-medieval life and the early history of the Reformation. Highlights include the tiny pulpit in which Luther kneeled or sat to preach his more than 2000 sermons in the Town Church, his habit, the cellars (these now contain very informative displays on Luther’s domestic life, e.g., how Katarina made beer and wine and how meals were prepared–a large number of cookware and utensils have been unearthed since 2004), the Großer Hörsaal in which Luther lectured, portraits and “The Ten Commandments Panel” by Cranach Sr. and Jr. (and members of his artists school), a room full of first editions of Luther’s writings, the completed German Bible (probably the most valuable and historically important object in the museum), and of course the dark, wood-paneled Lutherstube (with oven, table, and decorated ceiling). In the summer of 2004 masonry bricks were discovered in what has come to be called “the Luthergarten.” This news turned into a sensation when it became clear that these were not merely the remains of a foundation but a lofty basement storey standing in a trench. Other evidence has led scholars to conclude that these are the remains of Luther’s study, used by him from 1522 onwards and which was near the monastery’s latrine. (Luther frequently mentioned the fact that his study was near to a “cloaca,” a latrine–which functioned only until 1540.) This archeological discovery puts to an end the false notion that Luther’s Reformation Discovery occurred while he was actually “in the latrine,” ala psycho-biographical speculations about Luther’s constipation and other intestinal problems. Luther’s discovery occurred in his study “near a latrine.”

Luther’s sins and weaknesses are not avoided in the present museum. There are critical displays on his harsh words during the peasants’ uprisings, his equally harsh writings against the Jews, and his troublesome counsel to Philipp of Hesse. (The sex-crazed Philipp, who wanted to divorce his wife in order to marry another for strictly fleshly reasons, was told not to divorce his wife but to allow the other woman to live with him as well.) Still other displays address the negative use of Luther by later groups and movements. For example, Wittenberg was one of the “Brownest” (i.e., most Nazified) towns during the so-called Third Reich. As at the Wartburg, so also at the Lutherhaus, the Nazi swastika was hung with pride. The anti-Semitic caricature monument (“Jewish Pig”), placed on the corner of the Town Church in A.D. 1304, when the town’s Jews were expelled, has now been off-set by a contemporary memorial to the Jews who died in the Holocaust. The new plaque, located on the ground beneath the old memorial, stresses that the filth and muck of the past cannot be ignored or forgotten. Our Valpo group was grateful for Katja’s interpretive comments at this point of her tour.

Since August, 2006, Steve and Jean Godsall-Myers have been co-directors of the ELCA Wittenberg Center (see The mission statement of this ministry is worth quoting at length as a conclusion to these observations:

“In our increasingly secular world, the church needs to be more than just a historical witness to the faith. We are the church and we must act as contemporary witnesses to the gospel, bringing its reforming power into the world. Our witness to the gospel, grounded in our Lutheran confessional heritage, equips us to be in mission so that we walk together, teach each other, support and admonish one another. In mission we open ourselves to change, to ongoing reformation. As Lutherans, our roots are in Wittenberg, Germany, birthplace of the Reformation and site of continuing reform. The freedom of the gospel has been reborn in this former East German area where its people of faith kept the gospel’s light alive through the darkness of socialist oppression and helped lead their country into a new age. Today they embrace reform and seek opportunities to reach out in mission in a global context. The Wittenberg Center provides a place to communicate with the people of Wittenberg. It is also a meeting place where scholars, pastors, and lay people from all corners of the world can explore their mutual heritage, ask questions of one another and share the joys that accompany their gospel witness… The Center’s international participants and Lutheran World Federation (LWF) cooperation provide an opportunity to discover avenues for shared learning and mutual encouragement among a unique diversity of voices within the church.”

When you make your plans to visit Wittenberg, at Reformationsfest or in some other season, do contact the Godsall-Myers. They will be especially busy during the decade-long “Luther 2017,” but I know they will do everything they can to assist Ausländer visitors to their town.

For the next two years I will be taking students eastward. In future semesters we will stay at least two days in the Lutherstadt, and next October I hope to be able to join the Godsall-Myers and their fellow Wittenbergers for Reformationsfest 2008. Such an event, and related ones elsewhere, give one sober hope for the future. The message of that famous first thesis still rings true today. Luther’s Reformation hasn’t yet finished its course, even in the so-called LutherländerEcclesia semper reformanda

I am grateful to Dr. Jean and Pr. Steve Godsall-Myers for providing me with important information for this article. Additional resources consulted for this article:

Archaeology at the Luther House: New Finds and Results (Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt, 2006)

Martin Brecht, Martin Luther: His Road to the Reformation 1483-1521, trans. James L. Schaaf (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985)

Insa Christiane Hennen, Das Lutherhaus Wittenberg (Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt, 2002)

Volkmar Joestel and Jutta Strehle, Luthers Bild und Lutherbilder (Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt, 2003)

“The Power of Faith: How Religion Impacts Our Word,” Spiegel (Special International Edition, Number 9, 2006)

Martin Treu, Martin Luther in Wittenberg (Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt, 2003)

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